Muiris O´Sullivan_Megalithic tombs and storied landscapes in Neolithic Ireland — Мегалитические гробницы и легендарные ландшафты неолитической Ирландии

 Summary Резюме 
 This paper is concerned with the storied landscapes underlying the megalithic tradition of the Irish Neolithic. The importance of place is now well established as a significant factor in the distribution of megalithic tombs at a local level as well as the original source of material from which they were built. At one level those places could be seen as a backdrop to the megalithic tomb; at another they could be seen as the reason for its construction or an intrinsic element of the construction ritual. Here we are concerned with the Neolithic mythologies that might have given meaning to ancient landscapes. Although the specific mythical personalities and events through which the meaning of places were reinforced and transmitted from generation to generation in deep prehistory are now lost to us, we can nevertheless hope to identify the landscapes in which such mythical dramas were brought to life in the stories. The paper draws on analogies from Irish mythology and folklore, and examines a small number of Neolithic case studies in some detail.
Работа посвящена легендарным пейзажам, которые лежат в основе мегалитической традиции ирландского неолита. Важность места теперь прочно утвердилась в качестве важного фактора распространения мегалитических могил на этой территории, а также исходного материала, из которого они были построены. На одном уровне эти места можно рассматривать как фон для мегалитических гробниц; во втором случае это место может рассматриваться как основа для его строительства или как неотъемлемый элемент ритуальных сооружений. Здесь мы имеем дело с Неолитической мифологией, что поможет нам понять смысл древних ландшафтов. Хотя конкретные мифические личности и события, посредством которых значение этих мест было укреплены и передаются из поколения в поколение в глубокой предыстории,  уже потеряны для нас, мы тем не менее надеемся определить места, в которых такие мифические драмы были привлечены к жизни в рассказах. Документ опирается на аналогии из Ирландской мифологии и фольклора, а также рассматривает небольшое число исследований неолита  в некоторых деталях.
Introduction  Введение
 It is in the nature of humanity to mythologize, to devise explanatory narratives addressing the deepest existential questions we face:  Who are we? How did our world unfold? Are there other worlds out there? What is our future? A society’s response to questions like these  tends to promote the cohesion and distinctive identity of the group and re-affirm its status in the world. In this sense, modern scientific  myths about origins take their place alongside older traditions such as the biblical creation story or the Irish invasion narrative recounted  in the 12 th  century manuscript Lebor Gabhala Erenn. In time all myths become dated as the information on which they are founded is superseded by society’s expanding knowledge, but they are surprisingly resilient because the underlying mysteries are intractable. Ancient myths still live in the Irish oral tradition, especially in rural and  Gaelic-speaking areas, and manuscript accounts allow us to trace the  roots of these myths back to early medieval times at least. Beyond the reach of historical records, however, it is difficult to measure the genealogy of myths because chronology is one of the more intractable problems of folklore (O hOgain 1999, VIII).